Table 3. Parameter estimates from a generalized linear mixed model (logit link, binomial errors) assessing the effects of latitude, longitude, and migration distance (reference category, long distance) on the binomial trend variable (decreasing vs. increasing/no trend).

Fixed effects Estimate SE Z value P Random
effects
Variance
Latitude 0.071 0.020 3.505 <0.001 Jurisdiction
(58 groups)
0.170
Longitude -0.021 0.008 -2.650 0.008 Species
(31 groups)
1.536
Migration distance -1.241 0.508 -2.441 0.015